JAMSHEDI NAVROZ IS NOT ZARATHUSHTI’S DINI NAVROZ, BUT A HISTORICAL INCIDENT THAT HAPPENED AGES BACK
All of us are aware of The Convenient, of Fixed length, simple Zarathushti Calendar. Which is of 365 days. Its 1st Day Hormazd of Farvardin Month is the Navruz (New Year). On that day, Shah Jamshed of the Peshdadi Age sat on the throne. There is reference to it in the Shahnama.
- “JEHAAN ANJUMAN SHUD BARE TAKHTE UY, AZAAN BAR SHUDEH FARRE BAKHTE UY.” ~It was His (Jamshed’s) increased Fame that people of the world accumulated around his Throne.
- “BA JAMSHID BAR GAOHAR AFSHAANDAND MARAAN RUZ RAA RUZE NAV KHVAANDAND” ~ They showered Blessings on Jamshid. Especially From that day they called it Navruz.
- “SARE SAALE NAV HORMUZO FARVARDIN BAR AASUDE AZ RANJ TANO DEL ZE KIN” ~ The New year was Hormuz Roz of Farvardin Mah. Their Body & mind had respite from malice.
- “BA NAVRUZE NAV SHAAHE GETI FARUZ BAR AAN TAKHT BENASHASHT FIRUZ RUZ” ~ On the Auspicious day of Navruz, the Shah who had enlightened the world sat on his throne.
- “BAZORGAAN BA SHAADI BEYAARAASTAND MAYO RUDO RAAMESHGARAAN HVASTAND” ~ The Seniors held a Congregation to celebrate the Happiness with Alcohol, dance & music.
- “CHUNIN JASHANE FARROKH AZAAN RUZGAAR BEMANDEH AZAAN KHUSTAVAAN YAADGAAR” ~ From that day this Happy Kashan & the Kingship was widely remembered.
From the above Farsi couplets, we find there is no reference by Firdausi to the revolution of the sun or that of the Sun being in Mesh Rashi, when the New Year starts. It only states that the New Year came on Hormazd Roz of Farvardin Mah & that Shah Jamshed sat on the Throne on Navruz day. He does not state that as it was the season of spring when the sun entered the Mesh Rashi, Jamshed Padshah declared it to be Jamshedi Navruz.
In the Time of Firdausi, the year was of 365 days & Farvardin Mah Which at the Time of Yazdegard Sheriar (632-652 AD.) Fell in JUNE. Slowly sliding back to Springtime (March) in the Time of Firdausi (1000 A.D.) Firdausi terms it Auspicious & describes Shah Jamshed as having sat on the Throne.
SULTAANI NAVRUZ IN THE GARB OF JAMSHEDI NAVRUZ
Like the Fasli saal, Jamshedi Navruz is also a false (Pseudo) terminology. Firdausi Too does not Mention it in his Shahnama. As Per Historical facts, Shah Sultan Jalaaluddin Malekshah Saljuki; (1072-1092A.D.) in 1079 A.D.. : on the Advice of His Knowledgeable Vazir Omar Khayyam, For the Convenience of collecting Tax, Started 21st march as the CIVIL YEAR (Royal Year). This New Year was given the name of The Shah as ‘Navruz-E-Jalaali’ Or From The Clan ‘Navruz-E-Saljuki’, or from the Title of The Shah as, ‘Navruz-E-Sultaani’ & was Known By these Names.
Muslims & non-Muslims celebrate this as a ‘SOCIAL FESTIVAL’ & term it Only as ‘NAVRUZ’ & NOT as Jamshedi Navruz. The Zarathushtis of Iran of That time had Rejected this Navruz day & Considered The Jalaali Year as Imperfect in the Zarathushti Point of View. They Termed the Original Farsi Almanac as the ‘KADIM’.. Sultan Jalaaluddin had started; as is still in use; A Practically Suitable ‘Official Year’ from April To March. Along with the Royal Year for Tax Collection from 21st March. However, their Original Religious Year Was From Muharram like it is still today.
JAMSHEDI NAVRUZ’S INITIATIVE WAS FIRST STARTED IN SURAT
21st March introduced in Iran as Navruz, was a Social Festival & So it was celebrated with Jest & relished with Food in Whole of Iran. But in India, in the Name of Jamshedi Navruz; the Navruz established by the Muslim Shah, was 1st Started as the Dini Navruz, in Surat by the Rich Seth Nasarvanji Kavasji Kohiya (Died 1797 A.D.) He was working as a Broker in the Dutch Company in Surat. He frequently had to go to Iran for Business Deals & had good command over Farsi & Arabic languages. He had tremendous faith on Zarathushti religion. To establish an Atashbehram In Kerman, he had arranged for the Hearth Fire to be transported to Iran by the Priests Of Surat. He had sent the Aatash to Yazad in 1795. He was conversant with the Sultani Navruz of 21st March prevalent in Iran. Nasarvanji First started it as ‘Jamshedi Navruz’ in His Bungalow at Surat, with Much Fanfare. This created lots of discontent among the Surat Paris.
Just as Nasarvanji started ‘Jamshedi Navruz’ 1st in Surat, the well-known Seth Meharwanji Pande (Died 1876) at his House in Mumbai started it. Later on Seth Kharshedji Cama introduced this Festival in Full force. Afterwards it spread to many other clubs & Lodges. The Learned Seth Kharshedji Cama Dubbed 21st March Jamshedi Navruz, as a Dini Navruz & started a New Christian Type Zarathushti Calendar. Though He did not have much success in it.
As this Navruz of 21st March had been connected with Shah Jamshed, It had great importance among the Parsi community. Just as the Old Mahabharat time constructions were falsely connected with Rustom or Solomon’s name in Iran; The Very Old Muslim Civil New Year ‘Navruz’ was later Considered as ‘Jamshedi Navruz’ & also as the Dini Saal.
In Old Books of Zarathushti, religion there is no Mention of any Jashan for Jamshedi Navruz. This Proves its Non-Existence in Religion. ‘Jamshedi Navruz’ is NOT the Dini Navruz. In the old 365 day Zarathushti Calendar, it has not been allotted with any Roz. It is Just a Record of a Historical Incident that had happened in Distant past & Is Just to be considered as a Day of Commemoration of Shah Jamshed.
If Dindaar Zarathushtis, knowing the real history of that day, Celebrate it with a Jashan, or other celebrations, To Commemorate the Memory of Shah Jamshed, There is nothing wrong in it. Let us all Pray that the Golden era of Shah Jamshed spread happiness all over as the Season of Spring. May Sickness, Old Age & Untimely Death be Abolished & the Enthusiasm of the Youth always Spread in all Human Beings. Aameen!
From the Guajarati Book: ‘Jathosti Dharma Ane Kriyao Vishe Lakhano’ ~ Dasturji Dr. Firoz Kotwal pgs. 124-127